The Department of Pharmacy Administration has one of the oldest graduate programs in the country, offering quality graduate education for more than 55 years. The department’s students have completed 122 theses and 104 dissertations between 1964-2019. The alumni of the program have been successful in academia, pharmacy consulting and management, pharmaceutical industry, managed care and in other health care organizations. We encourage you to read the rest of the Department’s history to gain an appreciation of the accomplished faculty and alumni that have been associated with the Department over the years.
Pharmacy Administration was first listed as a separate unit of the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy in the Bulletin (University Catalog) in 1952-53. Prior to that year, the courses recognized today as Pharmacy Administration courses were listed under the unit entitled “Pharmacy.” The other units in the School were Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. The courses which might have been classified as Pharmacy Administration prior to the listing of the discipline were History of Pharmacy and Pharmacy Law taught by Dr. Elmer Hammond, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, and Drug Store Management and Business Methods taught by Mr. William New, owner and pharmacist of New’s Drug Store in Oxford, MS.
In the 1952-53 catalog, the faculty of the Pharmacy Administration unit were Dr. Elmer Hammond, Dean of the School of Pharmacy and Chairman, Dr. Karl Morrison, Professor of Economics and Marketing, Mr. Joseph Cerny, Professor of Accountancy and Mr. William New, Instructor. The courses listed in the unit included The American Economic System (Staff), Introduction to Accounting Principles (Mr. Cerny), Retailing (Mr. Morrison), Pharmacy Law (Mr. Hammond) and Drug Store Management and Marketing (Mr. New).
In 1955 Mr. Ned Williams, Assistant Professor of Economics, taught The American Economic System. In 1957 Principles of Economics was added to the unit’s curriculum and the course was taught by Dr. Randolph George Kinabrew, Associate Professor of Economics. In 1959, Dr. Kinabrew and Mr. Harry Eugene Peery, Associate Professor of Accounting, were added as faculty in the Unit. Mr. Peery taught Introduction to Accounting Principles, formerly taught by Mr. Cerny. In 1960, Dr. Francis Swan Scott, Assistant Professor of Economics, was added to the Unit to teach The American Economic System and Dr. Ralph William Yuill, Assistant Professor of Economics, was added to teach Principles of Economics. The course in The American Economic System was removed from the curriculum in 1961, the first year of the five-year pharmacy curriculum.
A program leading to a Ph.D. degree in pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacy administration, pharmacology and pharmacognosy was approved by the Graduate Council upon presentation by Dean Charles W. Hartman and was subsequently authorized by the Board of Trustees on Institutions of Higher Learning. The graduate program was activated in the Fall of 1962. Prior to the institution of these programs, the School of Pharmacy offered a degree of Master of Science and a graduate program in pharmaceutical chemistry leading to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in conjunction with the Department of Chemistry.
Seven graduate courses were added to the Pharmacy Administration curriculum for the very first time in the Fall of 1962. They were Hospital Pharmacy Administration, Advanced Drug Marketing, Advanced Pharmaceutical Law and Drug Labeling, Drug Development and Marketing, Problems in Pharmacy Administration, Thesis and Seminar on Current Pharmaceutical Literature, which was open to both seniors and graduate students. Dissertation was added to the curriculum in 1963.
Mr. Raymond Jack Bennett joined the faculty as Assistant Professor of Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration and Mr. Carey Eugene Watkins joined as Instructor of Pharmacy Administration on September 1, 1962. Mr. Bennett and Mr. Watkins were to jointly teach the Drug Store Management and Business Methods course for the next two years. Mrs. Josephine Porter, Instructor in Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy was added to the departmental faculty to teach Pharmacy Law. Throughout the 1950s Dr. Hammond taught Law and Mr. New taught Drug Store Management and Business Methods.
The plans for a Pharmacy Administration Teaching Laboratory (Model Drug Store) were developed in 1962-63. The estimated cost of equipping this laboratory was $30,000, most of which was to be contributed by the pharmaceutical companies. According to Dean Hartman in his annual report for 1962-63 the teaching laboratory, “should furnish leadership for the profession in the state and will be unique as a teaching model in many respects. Featuring thirty-two health and health related departments, it will be completely flexible in design in that all departments will be movable on casters. It will also serve as an ideal research laboratory and can be utilized for postgraduate seminars.”
Two changes were made in the undergraduate curriculum during the 1963-64 academic year. Pharmaceutical Marketing replaced Marketing. The three-hour course in Pharmacy Management and Business Methods was expanded to a two-semester, two-hour course. This lecture sequence was supplemented by a two-semester, one-credit hour Pharmacy Management and Business Methods laboratory course.
Dean Hartman, in his 1963-64 Annual Report, noted that since Pharmacy Administration did not require the laboratory facilities needed by the other disciplines in the School of Pharmacy, there were certain other needs which should be recognized and met. Research in this department frequently involved extensive travel or a large volume of mailings. Therefore, a research fund should be established for the department rather than using the School of Pharmacy’s general expense fund. Immediate equipment needs included a printing calculator, camera equipment, and microfilm equipment.
Mr. Cecil Eugene Melville, joined the faculty as an Instructor in Pharmacy Administration on February 3, 1964 and taught Hospital Pharmacy Administration. Mr. Bennett introduced a new course entitled “Pharmaceutical Marketing” for the undergraduate curriculum and also taught Advanced Drug Marketing in the graduate program.
In May, 1964 Dr. Eugene Watkins received the first Ph.D. in Pharmacy Administration. (This was also the first Ph.D. to be awarded in the history of the School of Pharmacy). The title of his dissertation was: “A Feasibility Study for Pharmaceutical Processing Industries in Mississippi.” The dissertation was directed by Dr. Charles W. Hartman, Dean of the School of Pharmacy. Other committee members included Dr. Randolph G. Kinabrew, Professor of Economics and Dr. Raymond J. Bennett, Assistant Professor of Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration. Dr. Watkins was appointed Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Administration and Assistant Director of the Bureau of Pharmaceutical Services on July 1, 1964. He served as Editor of the Bulletin of the Bureau of Pharmaceutical Services beginning with its first issue in December, 1962.
Dr. Mickey Charles Smith received the second Ph.D. in Pharmacy Administration in August, 1964. The title of his dissertation was: “The Problems of Economic and Market Research in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Application of the Census of Manufacturers.” The dissertation was directed by Dr. Charles W. Hartman, Dean of the School of Pharmacy. Other committee members included Dr. Raymond J. Bennett, Assistant Professor of Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Dr. Randolph G. Kinabrew, Professor of Economics and Dr. Joseph Herbert Bruening, Assistant Professor of Sociology.
Dr. Watkins resigned as Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Administration on June 30, 1965. He was replaced by Dr. Harry Alcide Smith on July 1, 1965. Dr. Smith joined the faculty as Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Administration and as Assistant Director of the Bureau of Pharmaceutical Services. He taught both the lecture and laboratory courses on Pharmacy Management and Business Methods. Mr. Joe Barry McCaskill, a June 1965 graduate of the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, was appointed Instructor in Pharmacy Administration and Coordinator of Pharmacy Conferences on July 1, 1965.
In January, 1966 Dr. Bernard Gerard Keller, Jr. was awarded the third PhD in Pharmacy Administration. The title of his dissertation was: “A Study of the Purchasing Practices of the State of Mississippi.” His dissertation committee included Dr. Raymond J. Bennett, Chair, Dr. Charles W. Hartman, and Dr. Randolph G. Kinnebrew.
Dean Hartman’s Annual Report of 1964-65 indicated the active research projects within the department included analysis of the distribution of pharmaceutical products of Mississippi, drug distribution in Mississippi hospitals, an analysis of drug losses in hospitals; and an analysis of the tax contributions of the pharmaceutical industry to Mississippi.
Dr. Mickey C. Smith joined the faculty as Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Administration on September 1, 1966. He had spent the two years since receiving his Ph.D. as Marketing Manager at Pharmacia Laboratories. Mr. Robert Edward Winkler also joined the faculty as an Instructor in Pharmacy Administration in February, 1966. Dr. Smith taught Pharmaceutical Marketing and Advanced Drug Marketing. Mr. Winkler taught Hospital Pharmacy Administration.
In 1968 Kerby Edward Ladner was appointed as an Instructor in Pharmacy Administration. Five new courses were added to the graduate curriculum: Medical Service Functions, Proseminar in Socio-Economic and Human Relations Topics in Pharmacy, Health Economics, Research Methodology, and Cases in Pharmacy Management.
Dr. Mickey C. Smith was appointed as Chair of the Department of Pharmacy Administration on February 1, 1968. Although Dr. Elmer Hammond, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, was listed in the University Bulletin (catalog) as Chair of the Department of Pharmacy Administration from 1952-60 and Dr. Charles Hartman, Dean of the School of Pharmacy was listed in the University Bulletin as Chair of the Department from 1961-68, Dr. Smith was the first Chair of the Department according to the Annual Budget of the Institutes of Higher Learning. All departmental chairs in the School of Pharmacy were listed for the first time in the 1968-69 budget.
In January, 1969, Dr. James Visconti, was awarded the fourth PhD in Pharmacy Administration. His dissertation was entitled: “An Epidemiologic and Economic Study of Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients on the Medical Service of a University Teaching Hospital.” His committee members were Dr. Mickey C. Smith, Chair, Dr. Charles W. Hartman, Dr. Marvin Davis, Dr. Julian Fincher and Dr. Joseph H. Bruening.
Dr. Robert Lawrence Mikeal joined the faculty as Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Administration on September 1, 1968. Dr. Mikeal was responsible for the Research Methodology and Research Design courses. Mr. David Simpson Newton was added as an Instructor in Pharmacy Administration July 1, 1969 and he was responsible for the Pharmacy Management and Business Methods and the Pharmacy Management and Business Methods Laboratory courses. In January, 1970 Mr. Max Ferm was added as the Department’s first Visiting Fellow in Pharmacy Administration. Two new courses were added to the graduate curriculum: Statistical Methods and Analytical Methods, both taught by Dr. Mikeal. In January, 1970 Mr. Max Ferm was added as the Department’s first Visiting Fellow in Pharmacy Administration. His official title was Adjunct Professor.
In June, 1969 Fredric Earl Jones was awarded the first Master of Science degree in Hospital Pharmacy. Jo Ellen Nettles Austin received the second degree in August, 1969. This program consisted of 18 hours of graduate course work, a thesis, and a year residency. This degree program was discontinued on February 19, 1993. Between 1969 and 1989 twenty eight people were recipients of this degree. Many held prominent positions as directors of pharmacy in major hospitals across the country. Herman Lazarus, who received the MSHP degree in August, 1970, served as the National President of the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists in 1985-86.
In January, 1970 Dr. George Joseph Norwood was awarded the fifth PhD in Pharmacy Administration. His dissertation was entitled: “An Analysis of New Product Market Failures in the Pharmaceutical Industry Including an Econometric Evaluation of the Influences of Promotional and Research and Development Expenditures on Pharmaceutical Sales.” His committee members were Dr. Mickey C. Smith, Chair, Dr. Joseph Sam, Dr. Julian Fincher and Dr. Randolph Kinebrew.
In August, 1970 Dr. Dewey Duane Garner was awarded the sixth PhD in Pharmacy Administration. His dissertation was entitled: “A Study of Drug Utilization Patterns Through Prescription Analysis.” His dissertation committee members were Dr. Mickey C. Smith, Chair, Dr. Julian H. Fincher and Dr. Robert Mikeal. On August 15, 1970 Dr. Harry Smith resigned to accept a position at the University of Kentucky. In September, 1970 Dr. Tom Brown was added as Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Administration.
In the Fall of 1971 Dr. Dewey Duane Garner and Dr. Clayton Richard Rowland were added to the Departmental faculty as Assistant Professor’s of Pharmacy Administration. One of these positions was the position vacated by Dr. Harry Smith. The other was a new position. Two new courses were added to the undergraduate curriculum: Health Care Organization I, taught by Dr. Rowland, and Health Care Organization II, taught by Dr. Garner. Dr. Garner was also responsible for the newly organized four-hour, one-semester Pharmacy Management and Business Methods Course. This replaced the two semester lecture and laboratory courses in management. Pharmacy Orientation was expanded to a three hour course and taught by Dr. Mickey Smith. Pharmacy Law remained a two hour course and was taught by Ms. Josephine Suber.
In 1971 seven Ph.D. degrees were awarded in Pharmacy Administration. Recipients included Dr. Kenneth Neil Barker, Dr. Tyrone Gibson, Dr. James Erwin Grogan, Dr. Delton C. Huffman, Jr., Dr. Pedro Juan Lecca, Dr. David Simpson Newton, and Dr. Charles Patrick Tharp.
Ms. Josephine Suber and Mr. Joe McCaskill received promotions to the rank of Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Administration.
Program and curriculum changes gradually moved the program toward a broader health care administration orientation. The graduate degrees, departmental name and course titles were officially changed to Health Care Administration on July 1, 1972. The non-thesis Master in Administrative Pharmacy degree (MAP) became the Master of Health Care Administration degree (MHCA). Only three people earned the MAP degree: Thomas C. Gajewicz in 1969, Hugo E. Delgado in 1971 and Nicholas M. Billirakis in 1972. Considerable effort was devoted to formalizing the graduate minor programs in economics, marketing and management. In addition a minor program in Health Care Administration for economics majors was approved. Two new graduate courses were added: Health Care Organization and Administration and Social Factors in Health and Illness.
As a part of the department’s continuing effort to improve the quality of the graduate program an effort was taken in the late 1970’s to seek accreditation of our program in Health Care Administration. The program became an associate member of AUPHA in 1975. Major changes in the program curriculum were implemented in 1977 to improve the program and comply with the criteria for full accreditation status by the Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Care Administration. In 1977 the Master of Health Care Administration (MHCA) degree was expanded from 36 credits to a full two-year academic program requiring 48 credit hours. A three month summer administrative residency was made as a requirement. In 1979 the two other master’s degrees, (MSHCA and MSHP) were also expanded to 48 credit hours plus a required three month summer residency.
The Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration conducted a sight visit on March 27-28, 1980. Although the final outcome was not successful the department gained significantly from its extensive self-study and the input from the Accrediting Team. In retrospect, it seemed extremely difficult to make a convincing case for a health care administration program to be housed in a school of pharmacy physically apart from a major medical center.
The non-thesis master’s degree in Health Care Administration (MHCA) was designed to provide the educational preparation for future health agency and facilities administrators. The MHCA program also had a hospital pharmacy track for students wishing to specialize in hospital pharmacy. The students were required to complete their summer residency in a hospital pharmacy. The first student to receive the MHCA degree was Richard Jeng Kuo in December, 1973. Between 1973 and 1985 the department awarded 61 MHCA degrees.
Efforts to establish an Alumni Association of the Department began during the 1982-83 academic year. Initial goals included organizing the Alumni Association, building a financial base and beginning an alumni newsletter. 39 alumni became charter members of the association and most of these contributed to a graduate scholarship fund in addition to their annual dues. Officers were elected and dues collected in the Spring of 1983. The Association’s newly formed Board included:
- President, C. Nick Wilson, University of Texas, Galveston, TX
- President Elect, Lon Larson, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, Jackson, MS
- Secretary, Robert Northern, Oxford-Lafayette County Hospital, Oxford, MS
- Treasurer, Dewey Garner, Department of Pharmacy Administration, Univ. of MS
- Member-Three year term, Randy Hoover, Methodist Hospital, Memphis, TN
- Member-Two year term, Gary Morse, Methodist Hospital, Memphis, TN
- Member-One year term, Bob Nance, NW Regional Medical Center, Clarksdale, MS
The first meeting of the Board was held on October 22, 1983 in conjunction with the Ole Miss Homecoming Weekend. The Board adopted a Constitution and By-laws which were later ratified by mail ballot. Annual dues of $10 was adopted to pay for alumni business, an Alumni Newsletter, and various mailings. Bruce Bellande accepted the position of Chairman of the Membership Committee with Robert Northern and Gary Morse to assist him. Phyllis Yarbrough accepted the position of Chairman of the Plans and Programs Committee with Judy Nuckolls, Ken Roberts and Carmen Huddleston to assist her. Shannon Flynn was asked to Chair the Nominating Committee with assistance from Robert Freeman and James Haynes.
The Alumni Board also approved a Residency and Placement Committee to assist graduating students with residencies and to set up a network on job placement. Jim Grogan was selected as Chair of the Committee along with members, Lon Larson, Ben Banahan, Harrison Dean and Glen Jones.
Criteria were adopted for an Outstanding Alumni Award. The committee included Randy Hoover, Chair, Hind Hatoum and Jo Ann Samartgedes. Criteria were also adopted for a Distinguished Health Leader Award. That committee included Mickey Smith, Chair, Adrian Farmer, Robert Freeman and Joe Jackson. Both of these awards were to be presented at the Annual Spring Convocation in 1984.
Gordon Whyte, President of the Health Care Administration Student Association, spoke on behalf of the students, indicating their desire to help the Alumni, and in turn some ways the Alumni Association could assist the students.
Two alumni newsletters, edited by Phyllis Yarbrough, were distributed to the membership in 1984. A third newsletter along, with a Membership Directory, was mailed on September, 1985.
The Spring Convocation was held at Camp Hopewell, near Oxford, MS, on April 24, 1984. Doug Lewis, Vice-president of Acquisitions at Hospital Corporation of America in Nashville, TN, was the guest speaker. Doug spoke on capital formation. Alumnus Carmen Huddleston, Assistant Comptroller at Edward H. White II Memorial Hospital in St. Petersburg, Fla., an HCA hospital, also spoke briefly on her experiences in that capacity. Over 50 students, faculty members and alumni were present.
Several awards were presented at this Convocation. Jim Grogan, Vice-president for Medical Affairs at the Erlanger Medical Center in Chattanooga, was honored as our “Alumnus of the Year.” The first “Distinguished Health Leader Award” was bestowed on Dan Wilford, President of the Memorial Care System in Houston, Texas. Dan was previously Administrator of the North Mississippi Medical Center at Tupelo, MS and an Adjunct Instructor in the department. Dean Wallace Guess of the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy was named an honorary member of the UMHCA Alumni Association. The “C. Nick Wilson Student Paper of the Year Award” went to John Juergens, a doctoral candidate in the program, for his paper entitled, “Determinants of OTC Drug Use in the Elderly.”
During the Fall of 1984, the HCA Alumni Association awarded a total of $200 to four students in the graduate program. The recipients of these first alumni scholarship awards were Lester Diamond, Jarvis Massey, Tony Thompson and Joseph Umeh. In the Spring of 1985, new officers and board members was elected by the membership. These included:
- President: Bruce Bellande, Associate Director, Division of Continuing Education, University of Mississippi
- Vice President: Judy Nuckolls, Professional Relations Representative for Memphis IPA with Blue Cross and Blue Shield (HMO)
- Secretary: Ben Banahan, III, Assistant for Health Services Research, RIPS, Univ. of MS
- Treasurer: Dewey Garner, Professor of Health Care Administration, Univ. of MS
- Board Member-Three year term: Assistant Vice President, Methodist Hospital South, Memphis, TN
- Board Member-Two year term: William Benfield, President, Diversified Pharmaceutical Interests, Inc., Seattle, WA
- Board Member-One year term: Frank Palumbo, Associate Professor, Univ. of Maryland
The 1985 Annual Spring Convocation of graduates of the Department of Health Care Administration was held at Camp Hopewell in April. Approximately 40 students, graduates and professors were in attendance. The guest speaker was John Hicks, Administrator of the North Mississippi Medical Center at Tupelo, MS, who spoke on seven key management issues. Herman Lazarus, Director of Pharmacy Services at the University of Alabama Hospital in Birmingham, AL, was honored as “Alumnus of the Year.” The “C. Nick Wilson Award” for the graduate student paper of the year went to Karen Blankenstein for paper on the subject of Yellow Pages advertising by nursing homes.
On July 1, 1991 the Department once again became the Department of Pharmacy Administration. The Department’s accomplished a great deal as a broad generalist program. It did this while maintaining a commitment to research and to undergraduate instruction. This decision was made because the Department did not have the resources to do all that it wished to do, nor was it likely to get them. The Department continued to offer graduate programs leading to Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. The non-thesis Master’s program was terminated. The Department increased its emphasis on the study of marketing, promotion, utilization, and management issues in all areas of pharmacy practice and the marketing and distribution components of the pharmaceutical industry.
For admission to the masters program, a degree in Pharmacy was preferred; however, students with degrees in disciplines related to marketing and management were considered for admission upon demonstration of a commitment to pursuing a career in the field of pharmaceutical marketing, management, or marketing research.